Our FAQ's

Welcome to our FAQ! Please read our FAQ and Grow Guides carefully.
You will find the answers to many, if not all, your questions.

For all general questions on cannabis cultivation such as "how can I tell male from female plants?", "how does cannabis flowering start?", “what lamps should I buy”, etc. please use Google, FAQ guides in marijuana internet forums, or buy a good grow book. A list of recommended reading and a short glossary is attached at the end of the FAQ.

The following applies to all Mandala strains.

  • They thrive in all grow methods and substrates: rockwool, expanded clay pellets, coco coir, soil, DWC/"bubbler", waterfarm, ebb & flow, etc.
  • Hybrid vigour and our extensive selective breeding methods ensure rapid, strong growth and exceptionally good mother plants. The mother plants are easy to care for, have vigorous shoots, and are long-lasting. Quality of cuttings is excellent under proper plant care and they root quickly.
  • Nutrient uptake is very efficient; root growth is fast and abundant. Plants require only minimal feeding or low EC to grow and flower optimally. Root mass is impressive in hydro systems.
  • Leaf and stem size is very large. This facilitates rapid vegetative development and supports high yielding bud growth.
  • Outdoor our strains are valued for their hardiness and ability to withstand extreme situations. Plants that have almost been eaten or damaged to the ground will recover and sprout new growth. A unique trait of Mandala’s is their impressive heat resistance during hot summer months (exceptional root system; high water retention).
  • Bud quality and yield are of a very high standard. Often growers report bumper yields from their Mandala crop regardless of plant height. The profuse resin content and tendency of Mandala plants to develop dense colas contribute to these rewarding results.

Mandala breeding goals:

  • pleasant and potent high
  • hybrid vigour
  • easy plant management
  • high yields
  • appealing buds (easy trim, compact buds, high calyx-leaf ratio, quality resin output)
  • resistance against pests and extreme climate
  • low % of undesirable traits (hermaphrodites, weak plants, etc.)
  • adaptability to various grow situations


The aromatic properties of each strain are described in the strain info. Please note that aroma, and especially taste, are dependent on grow methods and how you dry and cure the buds. Therefore, variations in the aroma of a strain, between different cultivators, are quite normal and logical. Growers regularly express positive feedback on the aromatic qualities of our strains. Organically grown Mandala buds should have a sweet taste. In most Mandala strains the aroma is composed of a fine mix of scents and wonderfully balanced. This lends an interesting, multilayered, and enjoyable quality to the buds. Most often, seasoned growers describe our strains as having an "old school" taste such as the marijuana of the 1970's. The smoke is smooth and rich.

Extra tips:

During peak flowering the grow room can fill with the scent of the plants, but it is seldom a problem for indoor set-ups. Usually one has to brush against them so that the aroma becomes strongly noticeable. Take a look at our STRAIN GUIDE for recommended low-odour strains that are especially suited for a "stealth" grow.

Taste can be negatively affected by improper drying and curing and bud mold. Also overfeeding and the use of bio-pesticides & fungicides adversely affects taste. For more info on how to get the best aroma out of your buds please refer to our topic on harvesting and the FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE.


In biology the word "phenotype" is used to define the distinct characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genes with the environment. When we talk about "phenotypes" we restrict this to a major set of differences between plants in a strain. It is unnecessary to distinguish between plants and mark them as a distinct "phenotype" because of an insignificant variable.

Which phenotypes in what % you will see in your garden depends on how many plants you grow out, plus the environmental conditions & cultivation style. You determine phenotype as much as the genetics may do!

There are two main phenotypes in several Mandala strains. Differences in appearance are however kept within normal limits so that the garden remains fairly even in growth and easy to care for. The variation among Mandala plants is surprisingly low for F1 hybrids (contrary to popular opinion an F1 generation can exhibit considerable variety). Depending on individual taste and expectations growers can also choose their favourite pheno as a mother plant for growing from clones.

In Hashberry and Sadhu the differences among phenos are primarily restricted to the amount of branching and have less to do with height for example. Ganesh shows very little variation. If there is a noteworthy difference among phenotypes you will read about it in the strain details. All other particular or peculiar growth patterns that you may observe in your garden can be due to environmental factors affecting your plants on an individual basis. Common factors are: light intensity, nutrients & plant growth products, pH, climate, pests and diseases.

One of the highlights in our genetics is that our strains can be grown in SOG style from seed. Many growers compliment us for the homogenous appearance of our strains. However, we strive to keep a careful balance between homogenity and hybrid vigour. One can be lost for the other if there is no strict guideline during breeding to prevent this.

Our aim is that each plant is worth growing in a strain regardless of phenotype. In a real-life scenario of a substantial crop of 100+ females you would find only 1-3% of plants that may fall below standard. This ensures a quality crop from seeds even on a commercial basis.


FAQ Overview


When should I switch to a 12/12 light cycle (flowering) for indoor plant height of 60-100cm/2-3.5 feet?
How tall do the plants grow?
I have a small grow box and am looking primarily for a short strain. What do you recommend?
What size pots should I use?
What is the male-female ratio?
I had many males in my batch of plants. Is this strain specific or a fault of the seed bank?
How should I fertilize on soil?
Which soil mix works best?
Should I top or prune my plants?
Should I remove fan leaves to let light pass to the lower shoots?
I found a male flower at an internode of a female plant – what should I do?
How should I water?
Can I flush on soil?
I am new to growing. Should I grow on hydro or soil to get good results?
I have just transplanted my plants into new pots and started flowering. When should I start fertilizing?
How can I tell when my plants require some fertilizing?


Which EC do you recommend?
Is coco coir better than soil or other hydroponic substrates?
What hydro system works best with your strains?
When should I start flushing?


How tall will the plants grow?
When is the best time to plant?
How should I fertilize?


How can I tell when to harvest?
What is the best method for drying and curing?
How much weight do the buds lose from drying?
Can I store the dried buds long term and how?
My buds have dried to quickly and are very crumbly. What can I do?


My plant has three internodes and shoots instead of two.
There is a calyx growing on the fan leaf.
I found a leaf that doesn't look normal.
Do your strains have many mutations?


Are your strains pure land race genetics?
Can I buy land race seeds from you?
Can you send me free seeds?
How can I store your seeds and for how long?


When should I switch to a 12/12 light cycle (flowering) for indoor plant height of 60-100cm/2-3.5 feet?

From seed in soil: 20-25 cm/8-10 inches
Cuttings in soil: 30 cm/12 inches

From seed in hydro (examples)
Ganesh, Hashberry, Fruitylicious: 20 cm/8 inches
Kalichakra, Satori, Krystalica: 15-20 cm/6-8 inches

Cuttings in hydro (examples)
Ganesh, Hashberry, Fruitylicious: 25-30 cm/10+ inches
Kalichakra, Satori, Krystalica: 20 cm/8 inches

Please note these are approximate recommendations. The end result depends on grow conditions such as light intensity, CO2, temperature, plant care, nutrients, etc.

How tall do the plants grow?

This depends on when you start 12/12 light cycle (flowering), if you are growing from seeds or clones, and your grow conditions. The above information shows what height you can expect when starting 12/12 at the height indicated.

If you are growing in a cupboard, grow-box, closet, etc. and concerned about height start flowering early at 6-8 inches. There are various methods to control height gently and effectively as well. Try LST (low stress training) for example. It is often sufficient to tie down the head shoot. Also pruning the top shoot once grows shorter and bushier plants (however more vegetative time is required with this method).

I have a small grow box and am looking primarily for a short strain. What do you recommend?

Ganesh, Sadhu and Hashberry are perfect for the homebox, closets, and cupboards. Both strains have little stretch after 12/12 but yield very well. Speed Queen has medium height and is also a good choice for direct planting from seed in small spaces.
For extremely low grow spaces you can also start with the 12/12 light cycle from germination or after 7-14 days growth. It usually best to give at least one week growth and to use a strong light source. Expect lower yields than in the strain details.

What size pots should I use?

The minimum container size for the standard 28-30 day vegetative period under 400W+ HPS lamps is 5L/1 gallon. A 8L/2 gallon container is recommended, but if space is limited you can use the min. size. Larger pots = more nutrients and root development. For flowering you should provide at least 10-15L/2-3 gallons. Larger containers with quality soil make plant care easier as you hardly need to fertilize and plants have good space for root growth. In a SOG grow with shorter/smaller seed plants or clones you can reduce the container size to 4-8 Liters/1-2 gallons.

Outdoor the plants require large pots to support their fast growth and the long vegetative cycle. Provide at least 15L/3 gallons for the early growth (ie. after 4+ weeks). After flowering commences the plants should be in minimum 25L/6 gallon containers. Outdoor plants require considerable amounts of nitrogen during growth and restricted containers quickly lead to deficiencies and can contribute to a higher percentage of males.

These are basic guidelines. The actual container size required depends on the size of your plants and length of cultivation! If plants are root bound and still in pre-flowering you should repot as soon as possible for optimal nutrients and root space. In very dry summers bigger pots preserve more water and help prevent damage to roots from overheating.

Avoid excessively large containers in relation to the plant size if you are cultivating far north and need to harvest early. Otherwise the plants spend too much time with root and shoot development and flowering starts later than usual.

For more info on choosing containers please consult our SOIL GUIDE.

What is the male-female ratio?

The male-female ratio is generally around 50-60% in our strains. This is the normal result from at least one packet of seeds. But we do receive frequent reports that growers get up to 70-80% of females (which corresponds to our own experience as well). An unusually low female ratio can be traced to negative environmental factors. Overall there is a natural balance between the % of males and females among a bigger population of plants.

If you plant considerably less than 10 seeds, such as only 4-5 seeds, it is possible to get an unbalanced ratio: a disproportionate number of females or males. This has nothing to do with the genetics of the strain. Rather, it is a matter of chance. While one grower may get many females, another one has a high number of males. We have often received feedback from growers who had 4-5 females from 5 seeds, but in some cases these results were reversed and, instead, a grower may have many males.

I had many males in my batch of plants. Is this strain specific or a fault of the seed bank?

The % of males or females in each individual grow is beyond our control. It is determined by luck, grow conditions, and plant care. We fulfill our responsibility as breeders to ensure that the genetics are stable, so that the there are no biological weaknesses in a strain which may express themselves through a negative tendency to produce many males. If your plants are healthy and receiving a balanced supply of nutrients and sufficient light you should get at least 50% females. If you have many males and perhaps even one or more plants showing hermaphroditic traits from a full pack of seeds, these plants will have suffered from a serious and long-lasting environmental stress factor.

Common environmental triggers for a high % of males are:

  • lack of nitrogen: often from small pots, depleted nutrients, low EC, bad soil quality, unbalanced pH
  • insufficient light
  • poor pH range in soil, water, or nutrient solution (hydro)
  • stress factors such as overcrowding and pest infestation

How should I fertilize on soil?

Please refer to our detailed article on fertilizing here: FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE

Which soil mix works best?

Quality potting soil for regular garden & houseplants. Preferably not mixed with coco coir or large amounts of perlite/vermiculite. For a detailed look at some brands and what potting soil should contain to support healthy growth and flowering please read our Soil Guide

Good potting soil is usually composed of peat moss and some beneficial extras. It is always pre-fertilized and usually delivers sufficient nutrients for at least 4 weeks growth in 5-10L/1-2 gallon pots indoors. Please don't save money at the wrong end and buy cheap or low grade potting soil.

For best results we recommend not to “stretch” the soil unnecessarily with additives that have no nutritive value: coco coir, perlite, vermiculite, sand, expanded clay pellets, uncomposted materials such as wood chips, etc.

Please do not cover the soil surface with expanded clay pellets. This adversely affects the pH of the soil since many expanded clay pellets are very alkaline and not pH neutral. It also has no practical benefits.

Recommended additives are: worm castings, humus/compost, rock dust, endomycorrhizal fungi.

A small amount of composted organic ferts such as chicken manure, etc. can also be used for outdoor. Indoor composted fertilizers are not a must for healthy growth and high yields and should be treated with caution if you are a novice grower. There are excellent soil brands available which are organic or contain organic amendments and supply all nutrients from start to finish.

For greenhouse and outdoor, where the plants grow larger and receive sunlight, organic additives are recommended. Many organic fertilizers can be bought in liquid or granule form but should always be pre-tested on some plants to determine their potency, experiment with dosages, and to find out if the nitrogen is fast acting or not. Remember: It is possible to overfeed your plants with organic fertilizers...they can be extremely potent - especially pure guano! Please read our FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE for detailed information.

We do not recommend the use of fish meal, blood meal, or bone meal for health reasons. These are waste products from industrial type animal farms and can be full of residues from antibiotics, hormone treatments, or stem from diseased animals.

For more info on growing in soil and choosing a soil brand please consult our SOIL GUIDE.

Should I top or prune my plants?

Our strains are bred for high yields and firm stems and branches. It is therefore not necessary to prune the plants in order to get satisfying yields or strong growth. If you want to give them a longer vegetative cycle for extra yields, control height for some reason, or require numerous shoots for cuttings you certainly have the option to prune any of the Mandala strains. The plants grow bushy with quality branches and heavy colas when pruned or topped.

Should I remove fan leaves to let light pass to the lower shoots?

The fan leaves of cannabis plants function as an important energy storehouse. They are necessary for the absorption of light to manufacture sugars which feed the plant and make it grow. Vital nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are also stored in the fan leaves and used as required. Removing healthy fan leaves therefore disrupts and cuts off these potential growth factors. It also affects the side shoot at that internode which usually grows less after that.
Mandala plants develop particularly large fan leaves. This is due to their exceptional hybrid vigour and other outstanding genetic traits. The large leaves assist in the rapid and healthy growth of our strains and do not inhibit or obstruct bud development. It is not recommended to remove any healthy leaves out of concern that they obstruct the passage of light and thereby reduce flowering. All our strains typically develop chunky and heavy bud sites from the bottom to the top despite shade from the fan leaves. There are other options available if you wish to increase or utilize light intensity to the fullest (see the tips below).

Older bottom leaves are later used by the plant for utilizing naturally stored nitrogen and to shed unwanted waste products. Let the leaves drop off naturally and remove them.

Extra tips: It is better to prevent overcrowding in your grow space for better light distribution. You can also prune the bottom branches that may stretch too much and divert the plant's energy to the top half closer to the light source. “Runny” lower branches, growing upwards from the first few internodes, take up too much space and should be pruned. They most often occur in hydroponic cultivation due to the fast availability of nutrients. But they can also appear due to uneven light distribution and overcrowding. Rotate your plants around the grow space if you have dark corners, so that each plant benefits from bright areas during it's life cycle.

Some growers distribute fluorescent tubes around the bottom of the grow space for extra lighting. Tying down the branches, as in LST (low stress training), allows for bushier growth with more space between the shoots.

When harvesting a crop that was confined to a tight space with less than ideal lighting, consider harvesting tops first and leaving less developed buds further down time to ripen more. This works especially well with Satori, Kalichakra, and White Satin or other hybrids with a sativa influence.

I found a male flower at an internode/in a bud of a female plant – what should I do?

Remove the male flower carefully (you can also spray some water on it first) with your fingers or tweezers. The pollen is not always potent and either way rarely a danger to other females. Isolated male stamen or flowers are a minor stress reaction of the plant from the abrupt light change to flowering. In nearly all cases the female plant continues to flower normally. But as a precautionary measure it is wise to observe the plant for the next few weeks to make sure that it stays “clean”.

Male stamen may also appear at the end of the plant's life cycle (senescence) in sinsemilla cultivation, i.e. unseeded garden. This is a normal reaction for cannabis and not particular to our strains. Again, in such a situation, there is no substantial danger to your crop as you can simply proceed to harvest.

If you observe a substantial amount of male flowers on a female then you should investigate possible environmental factors that are influencing the hormonal balance of the plants or causing stress. Common factors are: bad pH, low light, over- or underfertilizing, small containers, pests & diseases, use of plant growth products, inferior soil mix, etc.

How should I water?

Always adjust the pH: 6,2 to 6,5 for soil cultivation; pH 5.5-6.0 for hydroponics (depending on substrate and drain values). Use cheap vinegar as a safe, inexpensive and non-nutritive alternative to pH-Down products for soil cultivation. Products such as pH-Down and pH-Up contain highly concentrated soluble mineral salts such as phosphorus, nitrate, or potassium and can lead to toxic salt buildup in the soil and over-fertilize your plants. Especially seedlings and young plants are prone to “burn”.

In regions with poor water quality consider using osmosis water with tap water mixed at 50-50%, or whatever is best according to your water quality. Let tap water sit in a bucket a few hours for chlorine to evaporate; use hot water in the winter so that it's room temperature for later use.

  1. Water only when the soil surface is dry. Roots grow down so it's important how moist soil is in the mid to lower part of the container.
  2. Use your finger to test for soil humidity in the drainage holes of the container. It should not feel wet, only moist, before you water.
  3. Lift the pot if you are not sure. If it's heavy it has enough water. Lifting pots to ascertain how much water plants use is a good way to learn how much and when to water.
  4. Water only as much as plants need for daily use, or for 2-3 days.
  5. Place trays under the pots. A little run-off can be collected in the tray, but normally there is no run-off at all unless you over-water, and if the pots are very dry and the water runs through the cracks. If pots are submerged in an inch of water you have watered too much.
  6. Avoid letting pots dry out completely. This eventually destroys soil structure as microorganisms die off. Even worse, however, is that the fine lateral hairs on plant roots, responsible for nutrient and water uptake, are destroyed in arid substrates. They can only be replaced by fresh root growth, but during peak flowering there is little or no new root growth developing. Therefore damage to the roots can be permanent and affect yield.

Please consult our WATER & PH GUIDE for more info.

Can I flush on soil?

You should avoid watering more than normal and having a lot of run-off in soil grows. Heavy watering or flushing/rinsing the soil can cause bud mold (run-off also washes out nutrients). Instead, give the plants their daily requirements and water at the start of the light cycle. Even if they let the leaves hang a bit now and then in the final 10+ days it's better than over-watering at this stage.

In principle you should never have to flush in soil cultivation. It leads to all sorts of complications like waterlogged soil, nutrient run-off, fungus, etc.

If you already know you have made a mistake like over-watering, always wait for plant health to improve before taking steps further with feeding, etc. You can't "cure" anything with feeding unless there is a real nutrient deficiency at hand. You won't get a nutrient deficiency in soil if plants are in quality soil, have an adequate container size, and the pH of your water is OK. If the pH of your water is not within range you need to correct it... feeding would only stress the plants even more because they can't take up the nutrients in a substrate watered with a wrong pH.

Flushing your soil prior to harvest does NOT improve aroma and taste of the buds. It DOES increase chances of getting bud mold within 48 hours and can easily lead to other fungal infections which threaten your crop. The smart way to increase aroma is to buy quality soil and mix it with beneficial aroma enhancers such as worm manure and compost. Rinsing substrates should only be applied to hydroponic cultivations. The idea is to water with a very low EC, special ripening products, or only pure water a few days or a week prior to harvest - again, there should be no need to flush large amounts of water through the system. In coco coir this can also lead to a soggy substrate and increase the risk of bud mold.

I am new to growing. Should I grow hydroponically or in soil to get good results?

We recommend that novice gardeners start in soil and not hydroponics. Hydroponics is very labour intensive and there are more potential mistakes to be made. You have to be on the lookout for pH, EC, watering cycles, etc...

Small mistakes can escalate quickly and all of this ads up to a lot of work and worries if you don't have the experience and time.

Hydroponics is often recommended to get high yields. But with our strains the big difference is that they yield so well just in regular soil that many growers get the same, or better results, than they ever did with their past hydro crops and different genetics.

That said though, you will find Mandala strains perfectly suited for hydroponics too and very easy to grow in any hydroponic medium.

I have just transplanted my plants into new containers and started flowering. When should I start fertilizing?

Don't feed plants after you have recently transplanted them. After all, the point about transplanting is to provide them with fresh nutes in the soil! They don't need any extra feeding if they are sitting in fresh soil. Wait until the containers are well rooted. The time this takes depends on container size and light intensity of course. Nitrogen is required in higher amounts during growth and sexing. This nutrient is usually used up first in containers and needs to be replenished in moderate amounts during pre-flowering. Because plant growth slows down considerably during flowering you don't want to feed too much nitrogen. A well-balanced complete NPK for flowering with a formula of 4-6-7 or similar is perfect to stock up some extra nitrogen without disturbing flowering or causing overfeeding. Follow our recommendations in the article on fertilizing for the appropriate dosage and feeding frequency. Read our strain details for additional info on how nutrient efficient particular Mandala strains are.

Remember: There is no such thing as a standard “feeding schedule” on soil. Always observe your plants and let them decide when they require mild feedings! If your plants are growing with shiny green leaves and looking perfectly healthy there is no need to interfere unnecessarily with fertilizing.

For more info on growing in soil and fertilizing please read our SOIL GUIDE and FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE

How can I tell when my plants require some fertilizing?



Which EC do you recommend?

Use an EC at the low-medium range (i.e. EC 1.0-1.6 mS/cm or 1000-1600 µS/cm). This recommendation is based on a starting EC of 0.4-0.5 mS/cm of your water. Adjust accordingly if your water has a very different EC and consider purifying your water if the EC is high. During flowering most Mandala strains can be grown with approx. 1.0-1.2 mS/cm or 1000-1200 µS/cm. The best EC for your hydroponic setup has to be determined by yourself through practice and observation. There is no standard guideline.

The optimal EC depends on many factors such as:

  • the stage of the plant's life cycle (seedling, young adult, early flowering, late flowering; adult mother plant; seeded plant)
  • light intensity
  • style & frequency of watering
  • how the nutrient solution is replenished
  • water quality
  • temperature
  • CO2 supplement
  • pH fluctuation
  • substrate used
  • fertilizer brand and NPK ratio

As you can see there are many environmental factors that play a role in nutrient uptake and nutrient demand!

You will be surprised how little fertilizer is required to grow our high performance strains. Mandala plants are bred to utilize nutrients extremely efficiently (not to be confused with nutrient sensitivity). They are not finicky...as hydroponic cultivations maintained on high EC levels have proven. Our strains are tuned for optimal performance. Their profuse root growth, thick stems, and large leaves function as super-highways and storage houses for the uptake, assimilation, and storage of nutrients.

Remember: You can always adjust your EC upwards a bit if required...but you can't reverse damage from overfeeding.

By using an EC level that sufficiently provides for your plants without going over the top you will have a less care-intensive grow time, save $$ on fertlizer, achieve even higher yields and optimal calyx-leaf ratio, and enjoy better tasting herb.

For more info please read our FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE

Is coco coir better than soil or other hydroponic substrates?

Coco coir is a very demanding substrate to grow in. It does not have the excellent air-to-water ratio as rockwool and retains considerably more water. That's why most problems in this medium are caused by an inadequate watering cycle. Controlling the pH is also more of an issue with coco coir. All our strains have been tested on coco successfully. In our opinion a fertilizer with a good NPK formula is a must for good flowering results on coco. Avoid using a fertilizer with considerably higher levels of potassium than phosphorus for example. The ratio between nitrogen and phosphorus needs to be approx. 1:3 during peak flowering. For example a fertilizer with 3-9-8 works well. Coco is a choice for growers who already have hydroponic experience and the time and inclination to monitor their grow on a daily basis.

What hydro system works best with your strains?

Mandala strains have been grown successfully in every hydro setup from high tech Aero-Flo to self-made bucket systems.. DWC “bubbler” and rockwool grows are an excellent choice. Expect stout, hardy, vigorous and high yielding plants in hydroponics with our strains. Root growth is tremendous and the fast growth cuts overall grow time very short.

When should I start flushing?

If you utilize low EC levels and quality fertilizer it is not necessarily imperative that you flush the substrate in order to get good tasting buds. High quality fertilizer brands are composed of food grade chelates and other excellent sources of minerals, vitamins, amino acids, etc. These do not leave unpleasant residues in plant tissue. Excessive salt levels however can lead to a green or metallic taste in buds. The idea is to water with a very low EC, special ripening products, or only pure water a few days or a week prior to harvest - again, there should be no need to flush large amounts of water through the system. In coco coir this can also lead to a soggy substrate and increase the risk of bud mold.


How tall will the plants grow?

This depends on four factors: If you are growing from seed or clone, growing in the ground or pots, plant care, and which month you plant out (ie. length of daylight). Therefore, we cannot predict how tall your particular plants will grow without specific info's.

Generally speaking, the sativas in our catalogue will grow tallest and can reach a height of 3+ meters in the ground if planted early. The indicas grow to approx. 1.5-1.8 meters in the ground.

To cultivate short plants for incognito grows you have several options: late planting, LST or topping, growing in pots, and planting clones.

Remember: due to the fast and vigorous growth of Mandala strains you can plant seeds for outdoor as late as summer solstice. This reduces the overall height of the plants for a more discreet grow, speeds up flowering, and still yields a generous harvest.

When is the best time to plant?

52-55°N: shortly before summer solstice
47-52°N: April-June
35-47°N: March-July
Tropics: between the rainy seasons

How should I fertilize?

For more info on growing in soil and fertilizing please read our SOIL GUIDE and FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE


How can I tell when to harvest?

The general consensus among growers is that the trichomes don't have to be clear, cloudy or amber in a certain percentage to be ready for harvest. You just have to go on your personal choice of more amber if you require a more couch lock stone, or more clear and cloudy if you require a more heady high. The trichomes are one indication, but even more importantly is watching the flowering growth. Once it makes a significant drop it's time to start harvesting the ripest looking buds/plants. Our harvest dates are a good milestone. We start counting from the day the 12/12 light cycle begins and our flowering times in the strain details are known to be very accurate. You should not let your plants flower considerably longer than the times indicated unless you want to increase CBD-CBN% for medical reasons.

Clones tend to ripen faster than seed plants.

Sativas like Satori and Kalichakra can ripen from top to bottom; the flowering parts closer to the light source will be riper than those in the shade for example. Consider harvesting the tops in that case, and letting the light pass through to the other buds so that they can catch up. In progressive harvesting don't wait too long to start with the first batch of harvested buds. If a strain such as Kalichakra has a max. 75 day flowering period you need to deduct at least 5-6 days from this period for the start of your harvest, so that the bottom shoots have time to catch up and are still harvested within the preferred time frame for best THC levels.

We go by bud growth since our strains retain clear/cloudy trichs far into flowering. Our preference is to harvest before flowering comes to a dead end... as in no fresh pistils at all. This retains the balanced high and max. potency.

What is the best method for drying and curing?

To prevent bud mold spreading in your crop we advise to trim the buds from larger leaves and stalks straight after harvest. It is less work intensive and prevents damage to the trichomes to trim the buds while they are still fresh. If you like to preserve the large head buds they can be hung from a line after trimming. The small to medium trimmed buds can be spread out on any type of screen that promotes air passage such as mosquito mesh, simple meshed curtains, etc. Cheap plastic trays that can be connected to form towers with the bottom laid out with mesh work great. You can also spread out the mesh on a clothes dryer stand. A handy product for drying are the inexpensive and space saving hanging baskets sold at grow shops.

Even though the buds are lying flat out, if they have been trimmed properly they will retain a nice oval shape after drying. There is no need to turn them over while drying. Avoid any unnecessary handling so that the outer coating of resin is not rubbed off (most of the resin is contained in the bud however). Dry the buds at room temperature and normal humidity. Make sure the temperature does not drop too much to prevent mold. In case it does use a heater and small oscillating fan in the room to keep a good climate. Small to medium buds are usually dry enough for curing after 5-7 days. Larger head buds hung to dry require up to 12 days. Test the progress of drying by bending them. Even if the outside feels dry there is still enough moisture inside. Stems should be quite dry but still slightly bendable and not completely brittle and snapping when bent. This is a good stage to start the curing process.

The most common mistake growers make during curing is that they pack the buds into airtight containers. The second mistake is to fill the bags/containers to the top. When you first pack the buds into a bag or container fill only ¾ of the space. One of the best methods to cure buds is to use household zip-lock bags for storing vegetables. These are aroma-neutral and allow a minimal exchange of gases through the bags since they are not completely impermeable like glass for example. Cardboard boxes and paper bags are an alternative but they have certain disadvantages, such as that the buds might dry to quickly in them.

The first week of curing excess moisture will pass from the inner core of the buds to the outside. You can tell the difference because the dry surface of the packed buds is suddenly considerably more moist again from absorbing the escaped humidity when you open the bag/container a day later. In an airtight environment there is no possibility for this moisture to escape and for the necessary exchange of gases required for a good curing process. During curing the gases and moisture escaping from the buds need to be vented and fresh oxygen should be available. For this reason, the bags/containers with the buds should be opened for a few minutes every 2-3 days. Gently rotating the buds from the bottom of the bag to the top assists in an even drying and curing process. This is quite difficult to do in glass jars but a simple procedure with zip-lock bags.

Curing normally takes 6-8 weeks. After the first two weeks it is not necessary to open the bags/container every few days – once a week will suffice. Buds can also mature beyond the regular 2 month period and gain in taste and potency. For extended curing they should be stored in a zip-lock bag in a cool, dark place. When the curing process is completed the buds can be stored in airtight packaging such as glass jars for long-term storage if required.

If you are unexperienced and worried about drying and curing correctly, you should weigh your harvest before and after drying. This gives you a clear measurement of how much moisture is being lost and if the buds are properly dried for long-term storage. Generally speaking, it is better for the buds to be too dry than too moist if you are sealing them long-term to prevent loss of aroma and mold.  See below for more info.

How much weight do the buds lose from drying?

This depends on resin content. Generally, the buds of our strains loose 78% in weight during drying. For curing a dry weight of 23-24% from the original weight is usually perfect. After 4-6 weeks curing buds will loose approx. 2% more weight and are ready for storage.

Can I store the dried buds long term and how?

Our strains have a long shelf-life. You should pack the buds into zip-lock bags and tupperware for storage in the refrigerator at 6-8°C. For smaller amounts buds can also be refrigerated in glass jars. They can be preserved like this with minimal loss of potency for one year. For unlimited storage you need to dry down the buds to maximum and then pack them into the freezer.

My buds have dried to quickly and are very crumbly. What can I do?

Too dry buds easily absorb humidity. Place them in a bag that has been lightly sprayed with mineral water. You can also spread them out and spray them 1-2 times with a hand-held water dispenser and then repack. The moisture tends to disperse quite evenly among the buds this way.


My plant has three internodes and shoots instead of two.

Trifoliates or triploids are common to cannabis as a plant species. They possess three sets of chromosomes instead of the usual two. Approx. 2% of the population in Mandala strains exhibit this trait. So for every 100 seeds there are max. 2 plants. About 60% of trifoliates turn out to be males. From the females you have 20% with a higher yield than normal (due to the extra node and vigour), 20% are just under average, and the rest are normal performers.

There is a calyx growing on the fan leaf.

This is a genetic oddity that stems from some of our land race genetics. These fan leaves are great for hash making since they have more resin.

I found a leaf that doesn't look normal.

Minor leaf deformations or discolourations can occur in any cannabis strain. It does not affect plant growth and is simply part of the natural diversity among plants.

Do your strains have many mutations?

Definitely not. It is part of our breeding objective to reduce any undesirable traits to an absolute minimum. The parent strains, individuals selected for breeding, and resulting F1 generation are observed over the course of several seasons for any signs of abnormal growth before we proceed with the actual seed production for sale. Each Mandala strain has to pass strict quality controls before being made available to the cannabis community.

Among thousands of seeds it is nevertheless unavoidable that a tiny percentage of plants may show an abnormal growth pattern that is serious enough to inhibit growth. Mostly these are seedlings that fail to develop the first true set of leaves. Since our seeds are a biological product from natural breeding methods, and not a product of genetic manipulation or bioengineering, we cannot eliminate this risk completely. This is true of all seed banks however and we believe that our fair prices amply compensate for any minor losses in this regard.


Are your strains pure landrace genetics?

All our strains contain a certain percentage of landrace genetics or are hybrids of mixed landrace stock.

Can I buy special non-listed landrace seeds from you?

We only sell what is offered in our catalogue.

Can you send me free seeds?

Our policy is to keep our prices extremely customer friendly so that they are affordable to everyone.

How can I store your seeds and for how long?

Seeds can be stored at room temperature for short-term. For long-term storage of several months to 3 years please store the seeds in a dry, air-tight packaging (seal in zip-lock bag and place in a small Tupperware box, etc.) in the refrigerator (5-8°). Frozen seeds may get damaged when thawed quickly and therefore this is not a necessary option unless you plan to store the seeds longer than 3 years. Germination rates may slowly deteriorate after 3 years under proper storage. Please note that this is a biological product and we cannot guarantee the duration of viability.

Recommended reading:

Marijuana Horticulture – The Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower's Bible
Jorge Cervantes

Marijuana Growers Handbook
Ed Rosenthal

Hemp Diseases and Pests
J.M. McPartland, R.C. Clarke, D.P. Watson

Marijuana Botany
R.C. Clarke


Phenotype: The phenotype of an individual plant is either its total physical appearance and constitution or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size, color, or height that varies between individuals. Phenotype is determined to some extent by genotype, or by the identity of the alleles that an individual carries at one or more positions on the chromosomes. Many phenotypes are determined by multiple genes and influenced by environmental factors. Thus, the identity of one or a few known alleles does not always enable prediction of the phenotype.

pH: pH is a measure of the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution and, therefore, its acidity or alkalinity. Many plants require a certain pH in the substrate in order to absorb nutrients properly. For cannabis the ideal pH is between 6.2-6.8. The pH can best be measured with liquid testers or electrodes.

EC level: Electrical conductivity (EC) is a measure of a material's ability to conduct an electric current. Mineral salts dissolved in solvents influence the electrical current. An EC meter can therefore measure the amount of salts in a nutrient solution. Organic fertilizers can also be measured in terms of EC or nutrient strength.

SOG: Sea of Green; close planting in rows to maximize plants per m2/f2 from seed or clone.

SCROG: Screen of Green; growing the plants through a wire mesh for bushier and even top growth of flowering shoots.

LST: Low stress training as defined by tying plant stems down rather than pruning them.

Cola: A main flowering stem on the plant.